?学点语音知识:   1.关于语音的几个概念 1) 字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,2) 音标:词的语音形式。3) 音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有4…


1) 字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,2) 音标:词的语音形式。3) 音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。4) 音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap"ple, stu"dent, tea"cher, un"der"stand5) 元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。6) 辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。7) 开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike home due; b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi8) 闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it9) 重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。
2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标)1) [i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling 2) [i] sit, build, miss, myth1 3) [e] bed, desk, head, 4) [ ] bad, land, bank, stamp 5) [a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt 6) [ ] hot, want 7) [ ] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught 8) [u:] good, who, blue, soup, 9) [u] look, put, women, could 10) [ ] cup, come, blood, rough 11) [ ] girl, work, serve, nurse 12) [ ] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday 13) [ei] cake, they, play, eight, great, 14) [ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye 15) [ ] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow 16) [au] house, town 17) [ ] boy, oil 18) [ ] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce, 19) [ ] pear, care, there, fair 20) [ ] tour, poor,
3. 容易混淆的元音1) [e] [] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan2; lend land 2) [i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid 3) [e] [AI] bet3 bite; red write; said side, head, hide 4) [au] [ ] house horse; loud lord4; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause 5) [au] [ ] found fond; gown5 gone; down don
4. 辅音1) [p] pen, 2) [b] bed, comb 3) [t] tell, 4) [d], day, played, wanted 5) [k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box 6) [g] big, go, guess, language 7) [m] man 8) [n] nine, knife, autumn 9) [ ] bank, uncle, English, sing, 10) [l] land, world 11) [r] read, write, 12) [f] five, cough, laugh 13) [v] voice, of 14) [ ] think, 15) [ ] this, bathe 16) [s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf 17) [z] zoo, close, 18) [ ] sure, she, social, nation 19) [ ] pleasure, 20) [h] hot, who, hour 21) [w] wall, what, answer 22) [j] yes 23) [ ] child, teach, catch 24) [ ] joke, bridge, 25) [ts] boats 26) [dz] goods 27) [tr] tree 28) [dr] dream
5. 容易混淆的辅音1) [v] [w] vet7 wet; vest west; vine8 wine; very well 2) [s] [ ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math 3) [z] [ ] closing clothing; breeze9 breathe; bays bathes 4) [n] [ ] thin thing; sin6 sing; ban bang10 win wing; ran rang  
6. 读音规则1) 重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)2) 非重读音节 [ ] banana, student, today, after, [i] orange, secret, evening, very, Monday
7. 特殊读音1)音的连读:前面的词以元辅音结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,这样结尾的辅音要和开头的元音连读。例如:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all2)失去爆破:辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。例如:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme3)音的同化:两个特殊的音碰到一起,会发出变异成特殊的音。例如:Would you do it? I am glad to meet you. Can"t you see it? last year, this year, 
8. 重音1)单词重音A)双音节词a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorryb)有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。a"bout, be"lieve, ad"dress, de"cide, re"port, con"demn, res"pect, com"pare, in"form, dis"cuss, im"press, mis"take, en"force, pre"pare, em"ploy, per"mit, es"cape, pro"duce, ex"claim,trans"late c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre- 等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。"record, re"cord; "insult11, in"sult; "conduct, con"duct; "present pre"sent; "content, con"tent d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。"out"side, "re"tell, "well-"known, "un"real, "fif"teen, "Chi"nese, "pre-"war, "post-"war B)多音节词a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。"difficult, "communist, "family, e"conomy, oppor"tunity,de"mocracy. b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。"carefully, in"definite, "comfortable, con"ductor, ac"cording, dis"turbance, "complicated,es"tablishment, c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。cour"teous, cal"ligraphy, edi"torial, his"torian, peri"odic, mathe"matics, ex"perience,suf"ficient, i"dentify, trans"lation, re"ligious, curi"osity, pro"tective d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter"tain, emplo"yee, mountai"neer, Japa"nese, ciga"rette
A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重
B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。
C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be
D) 实词不重读的特殊情况a) 实词第二次出现 He thinks of that as a child thinks. b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰 I met her in the railway station. c) 代替词 Which book do you want? The small one. d) 感叹词中的 what 和how What a good day it is! How beautiful she is! e) street 在专有名词中 Wangfujing Street. f)this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening
E)虚词重读的特殊情况a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can. I don"t like you. He isn"t a worker. b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room. c) 介词在句首和句尾。In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with. d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。If you wish, I"ll visit you. When he comes, I"ll tell him. e)反身代词表示强调。He couldn"t come himself.a

作者: xiaoxue

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